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System of Breeding and Grading Up in livestock
System of Breeding and Grading Up in livestock

System of Breeding and Grading Up in livestock:

Sanjay Dutt Gahtori, Govind Kumar

Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture, SIPS

It is the methods of Producing of offspring / young ones. Scientific breeding is essential for the purpose of getting better performance in livestock such as – Milk, Meat, Wool, Egg etc. Grading is farm of out crossing in which bulls of a distinct breed are bred on non descript cows from generation to generation, so that in course of time a populations essentially resembling the breed from which the Bulls are used.

 

Types of breeding

Inbreeding: it is the breeding method of closely related animals for a minimum of 4 generations.

Out Breeding: it is the breeding methods of unrelated animals.

INBREEDING

Mating between two closely related animals in the same breed i.e. brother – sister mating, Parents -off spring mating.

Advantage: purity can be maintained in individual breed

Disadvantage: Loss of vigour, size, production, fertility problems.

Types of inbreeding

Close breeding: The close breeding is the process of mating between more closely related individuals e.g. parents –offspring mating.

   Examples – Sire- Daughter, Son-Dam

Line breeding: Mating of animals which are more distantly related like cousins mating.

Out breeding

Mating between two unrelated animals and they are having no common ancestor for a minimum of 4-6 generations.

 Out crossing: The individual of the same breed are mated but the individuals do not have any common ancestors for at least 4-5 generations.

Crossbreeding: mating between two animals from different breed is known cross breeding. The superior male of one breed is mated with the superior females of another breed.

  1. The Karan Fries were developed in India at the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal.  The Karan Fries breed was developed using Holstein (Friesian) and Tharparkar
  2. Karan Swiss -Sahiwal and Brown Swiss 

Inter specific breeding: mating between males and females belonging from different species are known as inter specific breeding such as - Mule- Donkey (male) X Horse (female)

Methods of cross breeding:

1. Criss-crossing: in Criss-crossing, two breeds are crossed alternatively. This method of breeding is proposed for utilizing heterosis in both dams and its progeny.

2. Triple crossing: In this system three (triple) breeds are crossed in a rotational manner. It is also known as rotational crossing.

 3. Back crossing:  crossing or mating of a crossbred animal back to one of the parent races which were used to produce it.

Advantages of cross breeding:

  1. Introducing desirable characters in any breed which is not possible formerly.
  2. It serves a good purpose in evolving a new breed owing to the fact that it disturbs the balance and brings about recombination in the germ to cause variations.
  3. 3 Extremely handy tools or methods used for measuring the hereditary transmission and its behaviour.
  4. The cross bred animals usually exhibit an accelerated growth and vigour or heterosis.

Disadvantages:

  1. It has tendency to break up the established characters and destroy combinations of characters.
  2.  Cross breeding requires maintenance of two or more pure breeds in order to produce the cross breeds

Grading:  Grading is farm of out crossing in which bulls of a distinct breed are bred on non descript cows from generation to generation, so that in course of time a populations essentially resembling the breed from which the Bulls are used.

  1. Non descript cow x Sahiwal Bull
  2. F1 50% ND + 50% Sahiwal x Sahiwal Bull
  3. F2 25% ND + 75% Sahiwal x Sahiwal Bull
  4. F3 12.5% ND + 87.5% Sahiwal x Sahiwal Bull