Opium (अफ़ीम)

Opium farming in india

Legal cultivation of opium for medicinal purposes is carried out in India

India is one of the few countries that legally grow opium poppy and the only country which legally produces opium gum.

भारत में इसकी खेती मध्य प्रदेश, राजस्थान और उत्तर प्रदेश राज्यों तक ही सीमित है।

India is the only country authorised by the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961) to produce gum opium. Eleven (11) other countries, i.e, Australia, Austria, France, China, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia, Spain Turkey and Czech Republic cultivate opium poppy, but they do not extract gum. They cut the bulb with 8" of the stalk for processing in its entirety. This method is known as Concentrate of Poppy Straw process (CPS).

अफीम की वैज्ञानिक खेती

भूमि का चयन, चिकनी दोमट मिट्टी, काली मिटटी, और आवश्यकता अनुसत खेत की तैयारी करे,
दिकम और अन्य भूमिगत किड़ो के लिए आवश्यक दवाई का प्रयोग करे

Climate and Soil:

It is a crop of temperate climate but can be grown successfully during winter in, sub tropical regions. Cool climate favors higher yield, while, higher day / night temperature generally affects the yield. Frosty or desiccating, temperature, cloudy or rainy weather tends to reduce not only the quantity but also the quality of opium.

Optimum, poppy prefers a well drained, highly fertile, light or loam soil with an optimum pH around 7.0.


A large number of races of optimum followed by their local names are reported to grow in India. They usually vary in leaf characters, floral characters or capsular characters. Telia, Dholia are some of the local races recommended for commercial cultivation.


The seed is either sown broadcast or in lines. Before sowing, the seeds may be treated with fungicides like dithane M-45 @ 4 g per kg of seeds. Seed .is usually mixed with fine sand before broadcasting to ensure uniform spread in the bed. Line sowing is preferred to broadcasting as the latter method has many drawbacks like higher seed fate, poor crop stand and difficulty in carrying out inter cultural operations. The best time for sowing is late October or early November. Seed rate is .7-8 kg/ha for broadcast method and 4-5 kg/ha for line. Spacing of 30 cm between lines and 30 cm between plants is normally adopted.

Manures and Manuring:

Opium poppy responds remarkably to the application of manures and fertilizers which increase both the yield and quality of opium.


A careful irrigation management schedule is essential to get a good crop of poppy. A light irrigation is given immediately after sowing followed by another light irrigation after 7 days when the seeds start germinating. Three irrigations at an interval of 12-15 days are given till pre-flowering stage and then irrigation frequency is reduced at 8-10 days during flowering and capsule formation stage.

Lancing and Latex Collection:

Opium starts flowering in 95-115 days after sowing. The petals start shedding after 3-4 days of flowering. The capsules mature after 15-20 days of flowering. Lancing of the capsules exudes maximum latex at this stage. This stage can be visually judged by the compactness and a change in the colour from greenish to light green coloured ring in the capsule. The stage is called as industrial maturity.

Harvesting and Threshing:

The crop is left for drying for about 20-25 days when the last lancing on the capsules stops exudation of latex. The capsules are then picked up and the plant is; removed with sickles. Harvested capsules are dried in open yard and seeds are collected by beating with a wooden rod.

The yield of raw opium varies from 50 to 60 kg/ha.

इस प्रकार लगाएं अफीम फसल में चीरा नीचे दिये गये विडियो को देखे

Opium (अफ़ीम) Crop Types

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